This paper discusses the process and research on learning a second language (ESL).
This paper explains that there are many different ways to teach a student a second language and every teacher must find a principle or practice that works with his or her teaching methods. The author points out that students learn the art of conversation from their peers, not through just vocabulary and grammar lessons. The paper relates the stages of acquiring a second language: Pre-Production (no speech), early production (limited vocabulary), speech emergence (increase in comprehension, listening and speech) and nearly fluent (express their ideas in both oral and written communication).
From the Paper:
“The Acquisition-Learning hypothesis is the most fundamental of Krashen’s theory. There are two independent systems of second language performance–the acquired system and the learned system. The acquired system is the result of a subconscious process much like how a person learns their first language. The person must have significant dealings in the language in which they wish to learn.”